Wednesday, 11 November 2009


> ST elevation ELEVATION
Electrolytes, LBBB, Early Repolarization, Ventricular hypertrophy,Aneurysm, Treatment (eg
 Injury (AMI, contusion), Osborne waves (hypothermia), Non-occlusive
vasospasm (prinzmetal’s)

> Exercise ramp ECG: contraindications RAMP:
Recent MI
Aortic stenosis
MI in the last 7 days
Pulmonary hypertension

  > ECG: T wave inversion causes INVERT:
Normality [esp. young, black]
Ventricular hypertrophy
Ectopic foci [eg calcified plaques]
Treatments [digoxin]

> EKG: 12 lead EKG quick interpretation of V1-V6 SSAALL:
· Elevations matched with their classic location of MI:
V1 Septal
V2 Septal
V3 Anterior
V4 Anterior
V5 Lateral
V6 Lateral

 > Pericarditis: EKG "PericarditiS":
PR depression in precordial leads.
ST elevation.

> Depressed ST-segment: causes DEPRESSED ST:
Drooping valve (MVP)
Enlargement of LV with strain
Potassium loss (hypokalemia)
Reciprocal ST- depression (in I/W AMI)
Embolism in lungs (pulmonary embolism)
Subendocardial ischemia
Subendocardial infarct
Encephalon haemorrhage (intracranial haemorrhage)
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Toxicity of digitalis, quinidine

> ECG: left vs. right bundle block "WiLLiaM MaRRoW":
W pattern in V1-V2 and M pattern in V3-V6 is Left bundle block.
M pattern in V1-V2 and W in V3-V6 is Right bundle block.
· Note: consider bundle branch blocks when QRS complex is wide.

 > ST elevation causes in ECG ELEVATION:
Early repolarization
Ventricular hypertrophy
Treatment (eg pericardiocentesis)
Injury (AMI, contusion)
Osborne waves (hypothermia)
Non-occlusive vasospasm

> Einthoven's Triangle: organization Corners are at RA (right arm),LA (left arm), LL (left leg).
Number of L's at a corner tell how many + signs are at that corner [egLL is ++].
Sum of number of L's of any 2 corners tells the name of the lead [egLL-LA is lead III].
For reference axes, the negative angle hemisphere is on the half of the triangle drawing that has all the negative signspositive anglehemisphere contains only positive signs.

> Dominant R wave in V1 WORD
WPW, Old MI, RBBB, Dextrocardia